Links and Resources

Syringe Exchanges and Harm Reduction Programs

Fact Sheets, Harm Reduction Coalition

North American Syringe Exchange Network

North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition (North Carolina)

Politics are Tricky but Science Is Clear: Needle Exchanges Work, The New York Times

Prescribe to Prevent (Co-prescribing naloxone)

Prescribe to Prevent: Overdose Prevention and Naloxone Rescue Kits for Prescribers and Pharmacists, Journal of Addiction Medicine

Syringe Access, Harm Reduction Coalition

Syringe Exchange Program Studies, Harm Reduction Coalition

Syringe Services Programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Syringe Services Programs: Myth vs. Fact, American Foundation for AIDS Research

Vital Signs: Trends in HIV Diagnoses, Risk Behaviors, and Prevention Among Persons Who Inject Drugs — United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Western North Carolina AIDS Project (North Carolina)


Syringe Exchange Establishment and Operations

Building Capacity: Moving Prevention Forward, AIDS United

Guide to Starting and Managing Needle and Syringe Programs, World Health Organization

Peer-Delivered Syringe Exchange Toolkit, Harm Reduction Coalition

Program Guidance for Implementing Certain Components of Syringe Services Programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Recommended Best Practices for Effective Syringe Exchange Programs in the United States: Results of a Consensus Meeting, NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Syringe Access Fund, AIDS United

Syringe Services Programs (SSPs): Developing, Implementing, and Monitoring Programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

AIDS United’s Policy Department can assist CBOs at local and state levels. Contact Syringe Access Policy Organizer Kiefer Paterson (
Harm Reduction Coalition provides advocacy and technical assistance support. Contact Capacity Building Services Director Emma Roberts (


Working with PWID, Populations with Special Health Risks

A Person Experiencing an Opioid Overdose Needs Oxygen and/or Naloxone to Survive Institute for Research, Education & Training in Addictions

Abscesses Merck Manual

Bacteremia Merck Manual

Cotton Fever: An Evanescent Process Mimicking Sepsis in an Intravenous Drug Abuser Journal of Emergency Medicine

Endocarditis Merck Manual

High-Impact HIV Prevention: CDC’s Approach to Reducing HIV Infections in the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

HIV and Injection Drug Use: Syringe Services Programs for HIV Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Incidence and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City: 2006-2013 Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Opioid Overdose Prevention and Related Trauma: Incorporating Overdose Prevention, Response, and Experience into Substance Use Disorder Treatment Heartland Health Alliance

Opioid Safety and How to Use Naloxone: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers Prescribe to Prevent